Reports in the news and through other sources have documented gruelling and exploitative conditions in Thailand's fishing sector, including unacceptable forms of work. However, the true scale of the problem has remained largely unknown due to the isolated nature of work on fishing vessels and the limited empirical evidence available. To help fill this knowledge gap, the international Labour Organization partnered with the Asian Research Center for Migration to conduct a survey of employment practices and working conditions within the commercial fishing sector in four provinces of Thailand. The study obtained detailed information on the situations of nearly 600 fishers employed on Thai vessels fishing in both national and international waters. As the largest survey conducted on this subject to date, it provides valuable data and analysis from which government, employer and worker representatives can draw upon to improve policies and practices in the industry.